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Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:00

11.32 There was an area of waste ground on the eastern side of the junction between William Street and Chamberlain Street, seen in the photograph below.1 This photograph was taken on Bloody Sunday from the northern side of William Street; the photographer was looking southwards towards Chamberlain Street. The houses on the right-hand side of the picture are on the western side of Chamberlain Street.

1 Taken by Gilles Peress.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:01

11.33 The following photograph1 was also taken on Bloody Sunday, and shows the view eastwards down William Street from the junction between Chamberlain Street and William Street. The junction with Chamberlain Street can just be seen in the bottom-right-hand corner of the picture. To the east of the junction is McCool’s newsagent’s shop. Barrier 14 is in the middle of the photograph and the Guildhall clock tower can be seen in the background. Waterloo Place, at which William Street came to an end, was about 60 yards east of Barrier 14. Waterloo Place is behind the Army vehicles seen in this photograph.

1 Taken by Fulvio Grimaldi.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:02

The Embassy Ballroom

11.34 The photograph below1 shows the Embassy Ballroom in Strand Road. In January 1972 the roof of the Embassy Ballroom was used for observation by the security forces. The roof was well above those of adjoining buildings. There were two Observation Posts (OPs), Echo and Foxtrot, on the top of the Embassy Ballroom. OP Echo was at the back of the ballroom roof and gave a view onto William Street and beyond. OP Foxtrot overlooked Strand Road and Waterloo Place.

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:02

11.35 The location of the Embassy Ballroom is also shown on the map below.

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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:03

11.36 The Embassy Ballroom gave the security forces a view westwards up William Street and southwards into the Bogside.

The junction of William Street, Rossville Street and Little James Street (Aggro Corner)

11.37 The next two photographs (shown again here for convenience) were taken from the Embassy Ballroom roof and were supplied by the MoD. They show the junction of William Street, Rossville Street and Little James Street. This area was known to the Army, and to some others, as Aggro Corner. In the first photograph, William Street can be seen running westwards towards St Eugene’s Cathedral. In the second photograph, more of the buildings on the south-east side of the junction are visible.


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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:04

The Army barriers

11.38 As more fully discussed elsewhere in this report,1 before the civil rights march on 30th January 1972 the organisers announced that they intended after the march to hold a meeting in front of the Guildhall at Shipquay Place. The security forces anticipated that the protesters would march either east along William Street or north up Rossville Street in order to try to reach Shipquay Place. On the day, the Army erected barriers in order to prevent the marchers from reaching the meeting place and from penetrating north or east of William Street; in other words, to keep them within the Bogside and the Creggan. Each barrier was given a number as part of the Army plan to deal with the march.

1 Chapter 9

11.39 We include here a brief description of some of the barriers, though we return to this topic in more detail a little later in this report.1

1 Paragraphs 12.15–23, 12.35 and 12.43

11.40 The locations of the barriers most relevant to this Inquiry are shown on the following map, which also shows the position of the Guildhall.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:05

11.41 Barrier 12 was in Little James Street, Barrier 13 in Sackville Street and Barrier 14 in the eastern part of William Street.

11.42 Much of the area depicted on the map above is shown in the aerial photograph below.1 The photograph, which was taken before Bloody Sunday, shows a view from the north-east. William Street is marked with a dotted line. St Eugene’s Cathedral is also shown. Two Army barriers (Barrier 9 and Barrier 11) were erected on Bloody Sunday in streets on the eastern side of the cathedral. We have marked the locations of these barriers. A further barrier (Barrier 15) was placed towards the northern end of Waterloo Street, which was a road that ran under the City Walls, roughly parallel to Chamberlain Street, and ended at Waterloo Place. This barrier is also marked. The Rossville Flats can be seen on the left-hand side of the photograph.

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:06

Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry
- Volume II - Chapter 12



12.1 In January 1972 the city of Londonderry on the west side of the River Foyle was usually the responsibility of two regiments or battalions. The area was divided vertically in two, as shown on the map below. The area to the east of the blue dividing line was usually the responsibility of the City battalion; the area to the west was the responsibility of the Creggan battalion.

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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:07

12.2 On 30th January 1972, 22nd Light Air Defence Regiment, Royal Artillery (22 Lt AD Regt) was undertaking the City task, as we have explained earlier in this report.1 However, for the purposes of Operation Forecast (the 8th Infantry Brigade Operation Order for 30th January 1972), the area for which 22 Lt AD Regt was usually responsible was itself divided in two. 22 Lt AD Regt remained responsible for the northern half of the area. The southern half was given to 1st Battalion, The Royal Anglian Regiment (1 R ANGLIAN), which was a resident battalion and had been in Northern Ireland since July 1970. The division is shown on the map below by the dark blue line that runs roughly west to east across the middle of the sector and then turns south-west.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:08

12.3 On 30th January 1972, 1st Battalion, The Coldstream Guards (1 CG) was the Creggan battalion. On that day it remained responsible for its usual area. This area included Fort George, a military base on the north-west side of Londonderry, which was the headquarters of 1 CG. This battalion had been in Northern Ireland since October 1971.

12.4 The Province Reserve, 1st Battalion, The King’s Own Royal Border Regiment (1 KOB), was given responsibility for RUC Division N (covering most of the County of Londonderry but excluding the city itself). This area was usually the responsibility of 1 R ANGLIAN. 1 KOB had arrived in Northern Ireland on or about 14th January 1972 and was based in Ballykinler in County Down.1

1 C1253.5

12.5 The map below,1 which was attached to the Brigade Operation Order for 30th January 1972 (discussed earlier in this report2), shows the division of responsibility among the Army units.

1 G95.580 2 Paragraphs 9.414–416
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:08

12.6 The position, however, was complicated by the fact that the Operation Order required various companies (or, in the case of 22 Lt AD Regt, batteries) to be detached from their own battalion (or regiment) and attached to another.1

1 B1279.098-99

12.7 In accordance with the provisions of the Operation Order, 22 Lt AD Regt retained two of its four batteries under its own command. In addition, 22 Lt AD Regt had under its command one company from 2nd Battalion, The Royal Green Jackets (2 RGJ) and one company from 1st Battalion, The Parachute Regiment (1 PARA).

12.8 The remaining two 22 Lt AD Regt batteries were attached to 1 R ANGLIAN, which also retained under its own command two of its own four companies.

12.9 The other two companies from 1 R ANGLIAN were placed under the command of 1 KOB.

12.10 1 CG retained all three of its companies under its own command.

12.11 Two companies from 3rd Battalion, The Royal Regiment of Fusiliers (3 RRF) were brought in to act as the mobile reserve and to deal with any incidents within 8th Infantry Brigade’s area other than those arising from the march. This regiment had arrived in Northern Ireland on 26th January 1972 and was based in Dungannon in County Tyrone.1

1 R73

12.12 The table below summarises the areas of deployment and the companies and batteries assigned to each area.

Table 12.1: Areas of deployment and the companies and batteries assigned, 30th January 1972

Area
Soldiers

Northern half of City battalion area
22 Lt AD Regt (in command)
53 Battery
11 Battery
One platoon from 42 Battery

Attachments:
A Company, 2 RGJ
D Company, 1 PARA

Southern half of City battalion area
1 R ANGLIAN (in command)
B Company
C Company

Attachments:
15 Battery, 22 Lt AD Regt
42 Battery, 22 Lt AD Regt

Creggan battalion area
1 CG (in command)
Three companies

Attachments:
Three companies from 1 KOB
Elements of 5 Ulster Defence Regiment (UDR)

RUC Division N
1 KOB (in command)
One company

Attachments:
A Company, 1 R ANGLIAN
Support Company, 1 R ANGLIAN
Elements of 5 UDR
A Company, 6 UDR

RUC Divisions O and P
2 RGJ
Three companies

Attachments:
1 UDR

Mobile reserve
3 RRF
Two companies

Arrest force
1 PARA
A Company
C Company
Support Company
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:09

12.13 15 and 42 Batteries of 22 Lt AD Regt were deployed in the area for which they were usually responsible, although for the purposes of Operation Forecast they were under the command of 1 R ANGLIAN. The two companies of 1 R ANGLIAN who were left in RUC Division N were also responsible for the area in which they usually worked, but for this operation were under the command of 1 KOB.

12.14 The map below shows in yellow the area for which 22 Lt AD Regt was responsible. The map does not show the entire areas of responsibility of 1 R ANGLIAN and 1 CG but shows the central areas most relevant to the events of 30th January 1972. 1 KOB was responsible for the area on the east of the River Foyle, most of which is not shown. The western boundary of 1 KOB’s area was an imaginary line running down the middle of the River Foyle. The area shaded in blue is a small part of the area for which 1 KOB was responsible.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:10

12.15 The numbered hexagons on the map represent Army barriers, erected in order to contain the march within the Creggan and the Bogside. The City Walls are highlighted in yellow within the area for which 22 Lt AD Regt was responsible. It will be seen that the City Walls themselves formed a barrier between Army Barriers 17 and 18.

12.16 It should be noted that Barriers 8 and 10 were not erected and that there were no significant incidents at Barriers 1 to 6. It should also be noted that there was some discussion at the hearing about the exact position of Barrier 11, but we are satisfied that it was probably in about the position shown on this map.

12.17 The barriers of particular relevance to this Inquiry are Barriers 11 (in Lower Road), 12 (in Little James Street), 13 (in Sackville Street), 14 (at the east end of William Street), 15 (in Waterloo Street), 16 (at Castle Gate), 17 (at Butcher Gate) and 20 (at Barrack Street).

12.18 Barriers 1 and 3 were permanent structures.1 The remaining, temporary barriers were generally of the type contemplated by the Brigade Operation Order and were constructed of wooden “knife rests” and barbed wire; some at least had a central concrete block.2 These temporary barriers were brought into position at about midday on 30th January 1972, but were not fully closed until later in the afternoon. The following photograph shows Barrier 14 in William Street soon after it had been closed. The Guildhall clock shows 3.30pm.

1 B1279.101
2 C1324.2; G95.572

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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:10

12.19 As the map above shows, the Army plan divided responsibility for the Creggan and the Bogside between two Army units, with 22 Lt AD Regt responsible for the Bogside and 1 CG for the Creggan. However, these soldiers were not expected on 30th January 1972 to enter the no-go areas; their task was to maintain the containment line formed by the barriers and to prevent the marchers from penetrating north or east of the line. There was a static police and Army post at Bligh’s Lane in the Creggan (shown on the map below); police and Army personnel did not patrol outside its perimeter while on duty there. This post was manned on 30th January by members of 1 CG. No other soldiers were stationed within the no-go areas on that day.

12.20 The Army post at Bligh’s Lane is shown on the following map.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:11

The roles of each battalion and regiment

22nd Light Air Defence Regiment, Royal Artillery

12.21 22 Lt AD Regt was based at Drumahoe, a village some two miles to the east of Londonderry. The Tactical Headquarters (Tac HQ) of 22 Lt AD Regt in Londonderry was Victoria Barracks, within Victoria RUC Station in Strand Road. These barracks are shown on the photograph below.1

1 This photograph, supplied by Captain Condor, was taken well before Bloody Sunday, as can be seen from the fact that it shows houses on the Eden Place waste ground.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:12

12.22 Soldiers under the command of 22 Lt AD Regt were responsible for manning Barriers 12 to 17. The table below, which is based on the orders given to 22 Lt AD Regt,1 identifies each of these barriers and the companies or batteries that manned them.

1 G89.547

Table 12.2: Barriers 12 to 17 and the Army Units that manned them

Barrier
Location
Company or Battery

12
Little James Street
11 Battery, 22 Lt AD Regt

13
Sackville Street
11 Battery, 22 Lt AD Regt

14
William Street
A Company, 2 RGJ

15
Waterloo Street
A Company, 2 RGJ

16
Castle Gate
A Company, 2 RGJ

17
Butcher Gate
53 Battery, 22 Lt AD Regt


12.23 In the 22 Lt AD Regt Operation Order,1 these barriers were given what were described as “nicknames”, which explains the use of the words “House Martin” in a radio transmission later in the day:

Barrier 12 Garden Bird

Barrier 13 Little Tern

Barrier 14 House Martin

Barrier 15 Wood Pigeon

Barrier 16 Wild Fowl

Barrier 17 Water Hen


1 G89.547

12.24 53 Battery 22 Lt AD Regt was made up of three troops, each consisting of about 30 men. On 30th January 1972, one troop was stationed at Butcher Gate. The other two were based at the Masonic Hall car park, within the walled city and in the west side of it. The location of the car park is shown in the photograph below.1

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:12

12.25 One of the troops based in the car park patrolled the City Walls. The remaining troop was divided: soldiers from it were deployed in the Observation Posts (OPs) at 3 Magazine Street Upper, Charlie OP and the Double Bastion. One man was deployed at the Walker Monument as a sniper.1 Two members of this troop were deployed as observers on the Platform, a section of wall overlooking the Bogside, which jutted out from the line of the Walls.2

1 B1953.005; Day 349/110
2 B1344


12.26 The photograph below1 shows the location of 3 Magazine Street, the Platform and Charlie OP. It also shows Butcher Gate, the location of Barrier 17.

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:13

12.27 The following photograph1 shows the Walker Monument and Double Bastion.

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:13

12.28 The area for which 22 Lt AD Regt was responsible included the OPs Echo and Foxtrot on the top of the Embassy Ballroom, to which we have already referred. OP Echo was at the back of the Ballroom and gave a view onto William Street and beyond. OP Foxtrot overlooked Strand Road and Waterloo Place.1 Members of 11 Battery 22 Lt AD Regt were stationed at the Embassy Ballroom as observers on the afternoon of 30th January 1972.2

1 B1940
2 C1164.1


12.29 Other members of 22 Lt AD Regt were stationed as snipers and observers elsewhere in the city. Members of 11 Battery 22 Lt AD Regt were deployed in Little James Street and Sackville Street. A platoon or troop from 42 Battery was attached to 11 Battery for the operation; members of this platoon were deployed in Harrison’s Garage on the north-west side of William Street.

12.30 One platoon of D Company 1 PARA, which was attached to 22 Lt AD Regt, was placed under the command of A Company 2 RGJ. D Company 1 PARA was ordered to prepare to act as an arrest force or to reinforce the barriers.1

1 G89.542

1st Battalion, The Royal Anglian Regiment

12.31 The Tac HQ for 1 R ANGLIAN was at Craigavon Bridge. The Army position at Craigavon Bridge, known as the “Bridge location” or the “Bridge Camp”, is shown in the photograph below.1

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:14

12.32 The road marked as John Street in the above photograph has been incorrectly identified. This street is Carlisle Road. John Street is the street immediately below it in the photograph. The junction of John Street with the roundabout can just be seen.

12.33 B Company 1 R ANGLIAN held Army Barriers 18 to 20. Members of B Company also acted as observers and snipers in the area for which their company was responsible.

12.34 C Company 1 R ANGLIAN held Army Barriers 21 to 24. In addition, members of C Company acted as observers and snipers and manned vehicle checkpoints.

12.35 The table below1 identifies the 1 R ANGLIAN company and platoon that manned each barrier.

1 Based on the 1 R ANGLIAN report made after the events of the day (CJ2.16).

Table 12.3: Barriers 18 to 24 and the Army units that manned them

Barrier
Location
Company and Platoon

18
Long Tower Street
B Company, 5 Platoon

19
Henrietta Street
B Company, 6 Platoon

20
Barrack Street
B Company, 7 Platoon

21
Bishop Street Without
C Company, 9 Platoon

22
Ewing Street
C Company, 10 Platoon

23
Orchard Row
C Company, 10 Platoon

24
Foyle Road
C Company, 11 Platoon


12.36 15 Battery 22 Lt AD Regt, under the command of 1 R ANGLIAN, was positioned in the Mex Garage, a military post in the south of the Brandywell. The map and photograph below show the location of this post.


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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:15

12.37 It will be seen from the above photograph that the Mex Garage was next to buildings belonging to the Old City Dairy. Some people referred to the Mex Garage post as the Old City Dairy.

12.38 Members of 42 Battery 22 Lt AD Regt, under the command of 1 R ANGLIAN, were stationed at the Craigavon Bridge with the task of manning vehicle checkpoints at Barriers 25 and 26 (one on the upper and one on the lower deck of the bridge). One company from 3 RRF, the mobile reserve, was also stationed at the bridge.

1st Battalion, The Coldstream Guards

12.39 1 CG was based at Fort George. The battalion’s Tac HQ for the purposes of Operation Forecast (the Brigade Order for dealing with the march) was in Brooke Park in Rosemount, north-west of William Street. On 30th January 1972, members of 1 CG were stationed at Fort George, Brooke Park and at the military post at Bligh’s Lane in the Creggan. This post was on the site of a disused factory.

12.40 The map below shows the location of these three bases. The map was out of date by January 1972. It describes Fort George as a naval establishment, which it was before it was taken over by the Army.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:16

12.41 The following photograph,1 taken from the east, shows Brooke Park.

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:17

12.42 The photograph below1 shows the Bligh’s Lane factory. The Tribunal received evidence that there were four or five Observation Posts around the perimeter of the land on which the factory stood.2

1 Supplied by Brigadier MacLellan.

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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:18

12.43 1 CG manned Barriers 7, 9 and 11. (As we have observed above, there were no barriers numbered 8 or 10.) In addition, members of 1 CG acted as snipers to protect the area in which the battalion was deployed. The Company Sergeant Major of 1 CG’s Signal Platoon, Warrant Officer Class I 164, was stationed with a small group of men on the City Walls. Their task was to act as observers, watching events in the Bogside and informing the Commanding Officer of developments.1 They were stationed just north of the Double Bastion, on the south-west corner of the Walls. In February 1972, Warrant Officer Class I 164 made a statement to the Royal Military Police (RMP) and marked a map, showing his location on 30th January. The relevant part of his map is reproduced below.2 The City Walls have been marked with a yellow dotted line.

1 C598.4; B1968
2 B1969.1
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Re: Report of the The Bloody Sunday Inquiry volume 2

Post  Guest on Wed 16 Jun - 17:18

The deployment of snipers and observers

12.44 The map below shows the deployment of Army snipers on 30th January 1972.
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