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Report & Profile of Mark Harrison MBE

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Post  Info Sat 20 Feb - 10:34

Mark Harrison MBE

National Search Adviser
Homicide,Missing Persons,Mass Fatality Disasters

Madeleine McCann Search Decision Support

The reconnaissance undertaken and this report has been completed at the
direct request and benefit of Guillhemino Encamacao the Aigarve regional
director of the Portuguese Judicial Police

Personal Profile

Iam the National Adviser in relation to Search for a11 Police agencies within
the United Kingdom for Missing persons, Abduction and Homicide. My role
involves advising on searching for persons that are missing, abducted or
murdered, using enhanced search techniques and technologies. Iattend and
review cases providing advice and support on search plans, strategies and
resources. Ihave extensive national and intemational experiente in such
casework. Iam a visiting Professor of Earth and Ocean Sciences at the
University of Southampton.

In compiling ais report Ihave driven and walked around the relevant areas of
Praia Da Luz during the hours ofdarkness and then during daylight hours. I
have conducted reconnaissance flights using #e Civil defence helicopter.
Consultation has been made with various colleagues and subject matter
experts in #e development of this report.

This report considers solely the possibility that Madeline McCann has been
murdered and her body is concealed within the areas previously searched by
Police in Zone 1around Praia Da Luz. Other scenarios or possibilities may on
request be considered and be subject of a further report. I also make
comment on the recent claims made by a Mr Krugel as to the whereabouts of
the missing child.

Initlal Action

On Friday 20.07.2007 a request was made by the Portuguese Judicial Police
to the NPIA for search advisory assistance. As a result of this the following
terms of reference were produced.

Terms of reference to provide assistance to the Portuguese Judicial Police.

Assist the Judicial Police and GNR in assessing new or previous areas
searched and give opinion on the best methods and assets to provide
assurance as to the absence or presence of M McCann's concealed
Act as a "critical friend" to the officer in charge of search planning and
management and offer immediate and enduring peer review until case
resolution or search suspension.
Assist in the development of framework models such as scenario
based searching to aid homicide disposal searching.
Consider further opportunities or areas for search in order to locate M
McCann as applicable to the latest intelligence and inforrnation
Where appropriate provide independent and impartial advice on the
enabling and disabling factors of specialist resources available either
within Portugal or elsewhere in body detection.
To assist in decision support where requested by testing and
challenging ciaims made by persons offering unorthodox search
methods or devices to aid locating M McCann.
7. Where appropriate and requested assist in advising on procedures to
procure any non Portuguese specialist assets that are deemed to be
relevant and useful.
Mr Krugel's Claims Regardlng the Location of Madeleine McCann

A Mr Kruigel, at the McCann's request, attended Praia Da Luz last week from
South Africa alleging he could assist in locating Madeleine McCann. I have
spoken with the Police officers that accompanied him and viewed the
documentation Krugel has supplied to the PJ.
The limiting factor in coming to a view is that Krugel did not allow anyone to
view the handheld device he had with him or observe him using it. He was
unable to provide any validating scientific data or documents to support the
claims he made or the device he alleged to have with him.
In short he would appear to claim he has uniquely developed a handheld
device that can find a missing person alive or dead in any given terrain over
any elapsed time period.

In debriefing the officers who accompanied Krugel it is possible to hypothesise
what he may have been doing and using.

In consultation with a colleague Dr Wolfram Meier-Augenstein we feel he may
have been attempting to give the impression he had developed and was using
a "Remote Laser based gas sensing device". However his claims regarding
the distance of detection, up to 20krn and the use of a hair sample are highly
unlikely and would be a great innovation in the scientific world. Further
provenance of this technique could be sought from Prof. Miles Padgett who is
a Professor of optics in physics at the University of Glasgow

(m.padaett@phvsics.nla.ac.ukte1+44 1413305389)
One obvious challenge to the claims of the device capability is that if Knigel
claims that by taking 3 separate location readings he is able to triangulate to
an area then one would assume that as an area was identified further reading
and triangulation inside that area could be conducted repeatedly until an "X
marked the spotH.

Ofmost concem is the poor quality of his report which merely shows a google
earth image of an area to the east of Praia Da Luz and includes open smb
land, beach and sea. As Knigel was not prepared to allow the device to be
viewed or provide any specification data of readings or equipment and the fact
that no known device currently exists commercially or academically then Ican
only condude that the infonnation he has provided is likely to be of low value.

GNR Searches Conducted wlthln 7 days of Madeline McCann's

On Saturday 21.07.2007 1 met with Major Luis Seqeuira GNR Portimao who
was the search coordinator for all search activity that was under taken in the
physical search for Madeleine McCann.

Major Seqeuira has not benefited from any formal training or accreditation in
the management of searching for missing persons. The search officers with
the exception of the search and rescue team dispatched from Lisbon had not
benefited from any formal training in search procedures. The teams available
and deployed by Major Seqeuira were drawn from unit of the GNR, Civil
Protection, Fire Brigade, Red Cross and Urban Police. Each team numbered
around 10 and between 80 to 100 personnel were involved in search activity.

The searches were based on a strategy of searching in "rescue and recovery
modeH to locate the missing girl alive or if dead not as a victim of crime. This
search phase lasted for 7 days from the date M McCann went missing.

The search was split into 3 zones radiating out from Praia Da Luz in a
northward direction. The first zone extended 3km to the EN125 road at
Espiche. Wíthin this zone, sectors were drawn using the natural boundaries
that exist and included the entire village. Officers were briefed and debriefed
before and after deployments and records of activity collected. Each sector
was repeatedly searched on 3 separate occasions over the 7 days using
ofíicers conducting line searches and supported by air scenting dogs.

The next Zone 2 was extended out to a radius of 7km to the boundary of the
N120 road at Bensafrim. As the sectors were larger and in order to support
the line searches 2 GNR officers on motorcycles and 6 GNR officers on horse
back were deployed. These sectors were all searched on 2 separate
occasions over the 7 day period.

The outer zone 3 was extended to 15km at Barragem de odiaxere a dammed
lake. This zone is in a mountainous region subject to flash forest fires.
Therefore Fire officers who routinely patrol and have local knowledge of the
area were tasked to drive the tracks, visit empty properties to look for the
missing girl. Additionally the fire brigade used a boat to visually inspect the
suríace water of the lake.

Re Visiting Previousiy Searched Areas

In considering the two scenarios that Madeleine McCann has been murdered
and her body disposed of by a person on foot or in a vehicle, I have reflected
on the areas within zone 1 that have been previously searched or subject to
forensic examination.

Mark Warner Crdche at Praia Da Luz

This is the location of the last confirmed sighting by a person independent of
family members of Madeline McCann. Although this location was within the
original search area it may well benefit from a further search using enhanced
detecting methods for human remains. This will depend on the size of any
outside grounds and concealed areas inside the building.

McCann's Apartment

The apartment in which the McCann's had stayed may present further
opportunities to search. The use of a specialist EVRD (Enhanced Victim
Recovery Dog) and CSI dog (human blood detecting dog) could potentially
indicate on whether Madeline's blood is in the property or the scent of a dead
body is present. In relation to the dead body scent if such a scent is indicated
by the EVRD and no body is located it may suggest that a body has been in
the property but removed. This search process could be repeated in all the
apartments that were occupied by the friends holidaying with the McCann's.

Murat's House and Garden

The property has been forensically examined to recover any surface trace
evidence however the house and gardens may benefit from a fully invasive
specialist search to preclude the presence of Madeline McCann.
A method previously employed on similar cases has been to use the below
Deploy the EVRD to search the house and garden to ensure Madeleine
McCann's remains are not present. The dog may also indicate if a body
has been stored in the recent past and then moved off the property,
though this is not evidential merely intelligence.

Deploy the CSI dog to search the house to locate any human blood.
This will act in support of the forensic examination already completed.
An inhibiting factor will be on areas where Luminol has been used.

Deploy geophysical instruments in the house and garden to detect any
burial of a body or concealment in voids.
These specialists should be supported by physical search teams exploring
and accessing all areas where concealment of a child's body could be made
typically 0.5m.

Murat's Vehicies

All vehicles Murat has had access to have been forensically examined to
recover any surface trace evidence however they may ali benefit from a full
search by the EVRD and CSI dogs. They may be able to detect whether a
dead body has been transported in one of the vehicles for intelligence
purposes or detect human blood deposits that can be recovered and
examined in a laboratory for Madeline McCann's blood.

Open Area to East of Praia Da Luz

This open area between the village urban limits and the Boavista golf club to
the east and includes a plateau on which sits a trig point and mobile phone

This area has been previously searched by officers and dogs walking through
the area to check for Madeline McCann's visible remains. However
considering the new scenario of Homicide and concealed deposition this area
affords many opportunities to dispose of a body. Within this area there are old
empty properties, wells, thick vegetation, pockets of soft sand and natural
fissures in the clifís. Wilst there is no intelligence she is buried or concealed
in this land it would be a natural place an offender may choose dose to the
Village using the least effort principie. A proportionate response may therefore
be considered to conduct a search of this area using a team of Victim
Recovery Dogs (VRD) that are specifically trained to located concealed
human remains.

Prior to undertaking this task it would be beneficia1 to consult with a Forensic
Anthropologist with knowledge of this region of Portugal to give opinion as to
the likely state of any remains to be found. Further research could also be
conducted with regards to the natural scavenging predators in the area.

An inhibiting factor is that since the disappearance of the child an old empty
house adjacent to the Trig Point on the Rocha Negra has been demolished
and ali rubble removed if she was concealed within this property the search
would be unlikely to detect her now.

Praia Da Luz Beach and Shoreline

The beach and shoreline are bounded by high cliffs and shallow waters. The
beach has fine granular sand and provides easy digging. However the beach
is extensively used by tourists and locals and afíords minimal areas of cover
from view for concealment. It may be considered appropriate to use the VRD
dog team supported by geophysical GPR to sweep the beach. This would be
a considerable time and cost undertaking and should be weighed in the
absence of specific intelligence.

Search Duration

If all the described assets were deployed it would be likely all assets would
complete their searches within one week.

Currently only costs for the EVRD and CSI are available.
The daily rate for this dog team is 1000 Euros. Flight travel wsts for handler
and dogs could be 2750 Euros. Veterinary costs: U.K. and Portugal to comply
with Pet Passports scheme 450 Euros. Accommodation, subsistence and
vehicie transportation would incur extra charge.

Costs for a VRD dog team to wnduct the open area search are not available
at the time of writing. Such a team could be sourced from severa1 countries
within Europe or USA that have this capability inciuding the UK. However the
UK is limited to those teams whose dogs have "pet passports" due to UK
quarantine restrictions.

Costs for a geophysical search team to conduct the search of Murat's house
and garden are not available at the time of writing. These could be sourced
from a wmmercial surveying company, a university or military within Portugal.
Alternatively enquires could be made within the UK.

The sea in general circumstances would be immediately attractive to an
offender as an easy way of body disposal and so must be considered.

The searches of the coastline was conducted by the Maritime Police and
Coastguard. They searched the sea for any body buoyant on the surface and
checked the coves and caves.

It could be considered appropriate to conduct research into the tidal flows and
movement of the sea in this region and hypothesise where a body may travel
if entered at certain points. It has been observed the depth of the sea appears
shallow at the relevant area of coastline and this may become an inhibiting
factor for any offender wishing to dispose ofa body in it.

Overall Summary

This report has highlighted the extensive and professional efíorts made by the
Portuguese authorities regarding the search to locate Madeleine McCann
alive. It has now begun to consider further opportunities to re search locations
in order to address the possibility that she has been murdered and concealed
nearby. This would be a proportionate and appropriate response given the
elapsed time since her disappearance and previous experience in such similar
cases. Should the investigators wish to discuss and develop the issues raised
in this initial assessment I would be happy to do so. Should further advisory in
country support be required of the National Search Adviser following this initial
assessment phase formal approval must be sought from the NPIA.
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Post  Info Sat 20 Feb - 10:34

Processo Vol IX Pages 2256 to 2261

Mark Harrison MBE
NationalSearch Adviser
Homidde, Missing Persons, Mass Fataliiy Disasters
Madeleine McCann Search

PD Luz Beach & Marine


The reconnaissance undertaken and this report have been completed at the
direct request and benefit of Guillhermino Encarnacao the Algarve regional
director of the Portuguese Judicial Police.

Personal Profile

I am a serving police ofíicer and the National Adviser in relation to Search for
Police agencies within the United Kingdom. My role involves advising on
searching for persons that are missing, abduded or murdered, using
enhanced search techniques and technologies. I attend and review cases
providing advice and support on search plans, strategies and resources. I
have extensive national and intemational experience in such casework and in
2004 was awarded an MBE for services to search. Iam a visiting Professor of
Earth and Ocean Sciences at the University of Southampton.


In compiling this report Ihave walked around the relevant areas of Praia Da
Luz during the hours of darkness and then during daylight hours of high and
low tide. Ihave conduded reconnaissance flights using the Civil defence
helicopter. On 30/7/07a full site assessment of beach dynamics and a
digability study was conducted by me along with Professors Alveirhino Dias
and Oscar Ferreira costa1 and marine dynamics experts. Additional
consultation has been made with Dr. Jorge Goncalves, a marine biologist.
These named experts all work at the FCMA (oceanographic centre) University
of Algarve.

Report Aim
'This report solely considers the smmh scenario that Madeline McCann
has been murdered and her body is concealed on the beach at PD Luz or
has been put into the sea from the shore.

The report considers the viability of burial on the beach and the likely
movement of a body if it entered the sea. It also considers the likely incidente
of such a disposal choice and any local impact factors that make this a more
or less likely event with the aim to inform decisions on any searches.

Praia Da Luz Beach.
In simple terms the beach is in a natural inlet and bounded by cliffs.
The winds are generally from the west and create low energy waves of less
than 2m. This is significant regarding any body disposal scenario from the
shore as the wave energy is not sufficient to "take a body" out to sea. Instead
a body would most likely trave1 eastwards in a re circulating motion along the
shoreline until it was trapped by the rock outcrop to the east of the beach or
consumed by marine life. ti the entry point was the rock outcrop itself to the
east of the beach then the body would most likely continue in a re circulating
motion along the shoreline until it again encountered a bamer to its passage,
the most eastward of this would be 5km away at Ponta Da Piedade near

Sub Surface Burial on P D Luz Beach

For Body Dlsposal Purposes The Beach Can Be Separated And
Discussed Into 6 Areas.

Figure 2.The boulders in the rock falls are too large
to man handle. Vegetative growth suggests rock
falls have been in situ for some time. The low energy
wave action would not move any of the boulders. It
is possible a small child could be secreted amongst
the rocks in natural voids.

Figure 3.The cliíf edge at the base of the beach is at
an angle that inhibits soil removal. The shale re fills
any hole dug and is unsuitable to achieve a burial.

Figure4.At the base of the cliff are wave cuts where
the bedrock has been eroded by wave action. Here
sand can be easily dug but after a few centimetres
the digger reaches the bed rock, preventing a
successful burial.

Figure 5.The beach cusps or berms are mounds of
sand made by wind action. These cusps form at the
limit of the tides reach and would only be recovered
in storm conditions. Digging on the cusps is easy but to achieve as
more than a few centimetres depth is very difficult to
the fine sand granules refill the hole

Figure 6.The dark sand in this image shows the
intertidal area. Here digging and burial could
possibly be achieved although it would be through a
mixture of grave1 and water. However any burial
would be quickly exposed by wave action and
ultimately taken into the sea.

Tidal Wave Data

Tidal data for the area of Praia Da Luz has been obtained from the buoy near
Faro. It collects data on wave height and diredion. However on 3* May 2007
the buoy malfunctioned and stopped collecting data for the month of May.
Data is available before and after this period and it could be inferred that
these results are consistent with the missing relevant period as there were no
exceptional storm events.

On the 2"d May 2007 the waves were of middle energy of a 2m height and a
easterly drift. When data was next collected on the 22"6May 2007 they were
now low energy waves of 0.5m to Im with the same easterly winds.

Low tide on the night of the 3* May 2007 was at 2200hrs at 2m. The
maximum amount of beach would be accessible inciuding the rocky outcrop.
High tide on the 4n May 2007 was at 0415hrs at 3.1 m. This would mean that
from 0200hrs onwards half the eastern part of the beach would be submerged
and so access to the rocky outcrop impossible on foot.

Therefore if someone deposited a body into the sea, on the night of M
McCann's disappearance, from the beach the optimum time window for full
access to the whole beach and rocky outcrop was between 2200hrs and
0200hrs. This time window would also be the optimum time for burial in the
sand, not withstanding the digability study limitations previously described.

The optimum time to throw a body from the top of the diff into the sea would
be between 0200hrs and 0400hrs as the sea would be at the ciiffs edge.
Conversely this would not be the optimum time window for a beach burial.

Marine Life

In relation to a body disposal scenario crustations could begin eating within a
few hours if the body was not initially buoyant or trapped on the sea bed. If it
was buoyant then crustations would be joined by fish and crabs once the
decomposition process had begun.

Homicide Disposal Datasets

A limited search has been conducted ofdatasets that contain body disposai
data in homicide cases (CATCHEM, SCAS, FBI). Although this search was
limited due to the time constraints placed on this reports delivery an inference
can be gained from both the data sets and the authors own case work
experience. Ihave also consulted with NPIA and FBI colleagues to benefit
from their experientes.
The conclusion inferred is that beach burial is extremely rare. This should not
surprise us as to dig on a beach is a high risk activity requiring expending time
and energy when a more 'least effort" disposal is readily available, that is
directly into the sea. Of those limited cases that were found to be a beach
disposal the overwhelming majority were surface depositions with only one
recorded concealment using rocks on top of a 2 year old child (CATCHEM


Where a homicide occurs and the sea is accessible and nearby then it would
become a natural disposal choice for an offender using the "least effort
principle. The beach itself would appear to merely be the platform to facilitate
this. When this is considered in relation to the beach at Praia Da Luz there is
a reinforcement of this view due to the severe limiting and inhibiting factors to
achieve a beach burial there. If a burial was achieved there is a significant
likelihood, based on the tidal coverage of the entire beach, that a burial would
be exposed and or taken into the sea. If a body entered the sea it could
remain close to the shore travelling in an eastward direction until it returned to
shore or became trapped in the sub surface rocks.

The optimum time window, on the night of disappearance, to dispose of a
body into the sea from the shore would have been between 2200hrs and
0200hrs. The optimum time to dispose of a body into the sea from the top of
the ciiffs would have been between 0200hrs and 041 Shrs.

Due to the normal high occupancy tourist activity on the beach and in the sea
it could be considered a body would self expose and be detected.

In condusion there is no intelligence speúfic to this case or generic datasets
that support a scenario of beach burial. Additionally the digability study and
coastal dynamics of the Praia Da Luz beach further limit this as a viable
scenario. However should further assurance be required Iwould suggest a
limited inspection around the rock falls at the base of the ciiffs on the beach
and the waters around the rocky outcrop to the east of the beach.

Should the investigators wish to discuss and develop the issues raised in this
assessment I would be happy to do so.
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